Fibre and it's importance

Many studies show that daily consumption of high fibre diets reduces the risk of developing kidney stones, inflammatory disease, colon cancer and other malignancies, obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Dietary fibres are non-digestible polysaccharides that are composed of complex carbohydrates. Based on their relative solubility in water, dietary fibers can be divided into insoluble and soluble forms.


Soluble fibers absorb water to form a gel in the intestine. Soluble fibers with the exception of Psyllium are more readily fermentable by the colon probiotic bacteria than insoluble fibers. An important property of insoluble fibers is the ability to bind with carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic chemicals that are formed during digestion of food, and eliminate them through the feces.


Soluble fibers can be degraded to short-chain-fatty-acids, such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate by fermentation. Among short-chain fatty acids, butyrate has been most extensively studied and the effects of sodium butyrate on cell culture and animal models are discussed in order to emphasize its potential value in prevention of certain diseases.




There is much evidence that show health benefits of daily consumption of high-fiber diets in humans.


These health benefits include reducing the risk of:


1. Developing kidney stones

2. Inflammatory disease

3. Colon cancer and other cancers

4. Obesity

5. Type 2 diabetes

6. Cardiovascular disease


Soluble Fiber Foods


1. Oatmeal and oat bran.

2. Apples, citrus fruits, and strawberries.

3. Beans, peas, and lentils.

4. Barley.

5. Rice bran.


Soluble fibers contain pectins, beta-glycan, gums, guar fibers, inulin, and resistant starch. Soluble fibers are able to produce short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate by fermentation in the colon. The amounts of short-chain fatty acids formed during this fermentation depend upon the exact site of fermentation, levels of fibers in the diet, gut transition time, and composition of the colonic microbiome.


Insoluble Fiber Foods


1.Wholegrain foods such wheat bran.

2. Brown rice and couscous.

3. Root vegetables, such as carrots, parsnips and potatoes.Celery, cucumbers and courgettes.

4. Fruit with edible seeds.

5. Beans, pulses and lentils.

6. Nuts and seeds.


Insoluble fibers contain lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. An important property of insoluble fibers is their ability to bind with carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic chemicals formed during digestion of food, allowing their subsequent removal through the feces.




Conclusion


In 2015, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommended a daily consumption of total fiber of 14 g per 1000 kcal or 25 g for adult women and 38g for adult men. This was based on reports demonstrating protection by fiber intake against coronary heart disease (Dahl & Stewart, 2015).


This recommendation is also likely to be relevant for protection against other diseases. The mean daily intake of dietary fiber by the Us and UK population is about 17 g/day (Dahl & Stewart, 2015). The proportions of soluble and insoluble fibers that can produce optimal health benefits in human remain to be determined.


Dietary fibers can reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer as well as improving overall intestinal health. The ability of insoluble fibers to bind with mutagens and carcinogens, affecting their elimination through the feces, together with the production of beneficial short-chain fatty acids by fermentation of soluble fibers, can have a significant overall health impact.


These combined properties are likely lead to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer and other malignancies as well as non-neoplastic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and immune disorders. Despite their short half-life in the plasma, fiber-generated short-chain fatty acids, as they are generated for prolonged periods during digestion, are likely to be beneficial in reducing the incidence of specific diseases.


The above information was taken from a study - Link to Study: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221261981830007X?via%3Dihub


#fibre #health #nutrition

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